The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model organism for biological study, particularly for genetics and molecular biology . The entire genome of this species has been base sequenced and it is used to do research on the basic cellular mechanics of genetic replication , DNA recombination , cell division and metabolism . This type of yeast reproduces by budding .
The world’s most important yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , has been a very useful fungus for humans for many millennia.
One could not imagine a better model organism than the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Yeast cells can be grown on defined media, genetic manipulation and transformation of yeast is pretty simple and transformed genes are easily integrated into one of yeast’s 16 chromosomes. The yeast genome was the first to be sequenced (in 1996) and researchers know it inside out. A lot of basic cellular functions such as cell devision, DNA replication, stress response and transcription regulation are very similar to higher eukaryotes and disrupted genes may be complimented by introduced homologous genes. And last but not least, there are myriads of yeast strains available, carrying markers or defined mutations.
Yeasts are everywhere! There are several hundred recognized species of yeasts, with many strains within each species classification. Basically, anywhere there is a carbohydrate (sugar) source, you will probably find yeasts that are adapted to consume it. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species that has the capability of utilizing a wide range of sugars such as, glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, maltotriose, and raffinose (lager yeasts can also metabolize melibiose). The ability to metabolize a wide range of sugars allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapt to many environments.